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Hydraulic (water) turbines are machines that convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. This conversion is possible in a complex facility called hydro power plant (HPP), and sometimes simply dam. Usually, the mechanical energy is conversed into electrical energy, in the same harnessing, using electrical machines called electrical generators. The most usual generators are synchronous generators, which are called hydro generators due to the fact that they are driven by hydraulic turbines.

Hydropower Plant - Cross Section

There are two types of specific parameters that defines the hydraulic turbines:
  1. Specific parameters related to energy:
    • flow;
    • head;
    • absorbed power;
    • net power;
    • efficiency;
    • speed.
  2. Specific parameters related to cavitation:
    • ΔHs;
    • cavitation intensity.
A certain type of turbine is chosen according to the above mentioned specific parameters related to energy. The following video from Learn Engineering is a great visualization to emphasize this.


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